10/66 Dementia Research Group Alzheimer's Disease International

10/66 Pilot Studies

28 research groups in India, China and southeast Asia, Latin America, Nigeria and Russia have contributed to the 10/66 Dementia Research Group pilot study programme.


  • To develop and validate a one-phase education- and culture-fair dementia diagnostic algorithm to be used in populations with very little formal education and in very different countries and cultures.
  • To obtain preliminary information on:
    • care arrangements for people with dementia
    • the impact upon caregivers of providing care
    • the common behaviour problems that they encounter across regions and cultures


We interviewed nearly 3000 people aged 60 years and older in centres in India, China and southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and Russia, purposively recruited into one of four groups. Those with dementia, and three control groups free of dementia: depression, high education and low education. Clinical diagnoses of dementia (according to DSM IV criteria) and depression (a MADRS score of 18 or over) were made by local clinicians.

An interviewer, masked to dementia diagnosis, administered a structured clinical interview, a cognitive test battery and an informant interview with a family member. For those with dementia (after unblinding) we further interviewed the family caregiver to assess care arrangements, and caregiver strain. Open ended questions were used to ascertain behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

Development and validation of the 10/66 Dementia Diagnostic Algorithm
Care arrangements for people with dementia
Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)


The pilot studies were conducted largely without the benefit of funding support. The contributors thank the many research workers and clinicians who volunteered their time, and who are too numerous to be credited individually.

The following centres received direct funding support for the pilot research program:

  • São Paulo and Botucatu (Brazil) - FAPESP grant no.1998/12727-0 and CNPq grant no. 301330/96-4 (São Paulo),
  • Taipei (Taiwan) - National Science Council of Taiwan Grant No: NSC-89-2314-B-195-029,
  • Vellore (India) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) – World Health Organisation.

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